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Chronology of the LBK

Chronology of the LBK culture consists of four development stages defined on the basis of linear decoration technique. Each of these stages can be characterized by a matrix of presence and abundance of the so-called chronologically evaluated markers of linear decoration. (codes).

Early stage:

The early stage is characterized by cannelure (gamma10) and cannelured A-shaped triple-line (gamma30) that has, however, decreasing trend, and will be replaced at the very end of the early stage with incised A-shaped triple-line (beta). Thick-walled pottery with high ratio of tempering grits prevails in the ceramic corpus. Linear decoration was done by fluted lines and consists of simple rectilinear patters (curves, spirals, lines, and meanders). Line beneath the rim is not present. Surface of the coarse ware can be decorated with depressions made by fingers that are located beneath the rim or with lines covering the entire surface. Impressions of fingers covering completely the surface or a plastic band beneath the rim occurred extremely rarely. Knobs with either grooves or variously cut that are flanked with finger- depressions are also characteristic. Handles occurred rarely, and are attested only on bottles and tubs (Pavlů – Vokolek 1992, 44-45). Cannelured lines (gamma10) are replaced in the course of this stage by simple, incised lines (delta10, delta20). Pattern of cannelured line with dots set aside (gamma20) should be increasing. Dotted wavy line (alpha11) should appear for the first time in the course of the early stage or at its very end, together with wavy line with dots set aside (theta). However, these patters do not belong among the leading decoration schemes.

Middle stage:

The middle stage is characteristic by dotted band (alpha12) with the so-called notes placed on the ends, folds and in crossing points of lines (epsilon10). Frequency of A-shaped triple-lined band (beta) decreased in time and it is gradually replaced with later variants (delta30, epsilon13 a epsilon23). Versions of filled bands of alpha20 and alfa30 types are also attested, eventhough they are characteristic for the following development stage. Frequency of wavy lines with dots set aside (theta) is also decreasing as well as simple incised line (delta10).

Late stage:

Notes distributed on line both sparsely and densely (epsilon20, epsilon30) belong among the key markers of the late stage. Although densely distributed notes on pre-outlined lines (zeta) occurred in this stage for the first time, their significance boomed only during intermediate phase between the late and the terminal stages. Filled bands (alfa12) with their later versions (alfa20, alfa30), lines with dots set aside (theta), and notes placed on folds (epsilon12) can also occur, however, they are insignificant.

Terminal (šárecký) stage:

Notes on pre-outlined lines (zeta) ) belong among key markers of the terminal stage. Technique of a row of separate strokes (eta) is less frequent. Late bands filled with dots (alfa12, alfa20, alfa30) are insignificant. Ladder-motives and late variant of a triple-line melting with note decoration techniques (gamma30, epsilon13, epsilon23) are attested extremely rarely in Bohemia. Separate triangular notes are typical for the latest phase of the terminal stage.



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