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History

Archaeological excavations in Bylany at Kutná Hora have introduced into focus of professional public the issue of settlement area study of the earliest farmers in Central Europe, e.g. the society of the linear pottery culture – LBK (i.e. international abbreviation originating from the German term Linearbandkeramik – linear pottery). Beginnings of the archaeological research of the site are closely-knit with the name of Prof. Bohumil Soudský, who was in his days one of the most gifted archaeologists. Among his students and continuators have belonged dr. Ivan Pavlů, dr. Marie Zápotocká, and also the late dr. Jan Rulf. The field activities resulted in several monographs that distinctively influenced not only methodology of Neolithic research but also processing of archaeological material dated from other periods of human history. Along with intensified archaeological knowledge, the opinions on cultural context of the early farmers have been modified.

History of the scientific activities in Bylany:

1953 – 1967

Project of large-scale unearthing of the Neolithic settlement yielded an area of almost seven hectares labeled as Bylany 1 (BY1) that was further subdivided into sections A, B, and F. Among main results of these activities belongs creation of the internal chronology of the settlement. Already during the excavations it became clear that the discovered settlement formed heterogeneous spatio-temporal complex that consists of several components. In the context of changed conception of scientific tasks of the Institute of Archaeology the unearthing of the section A was interrupted in the year 1964. Although the archaeological research of Bylany remained only a torso of originally proposed project of entire unearthing of the inhabited area, up to present day it represents the largest continuously explored range of a Neolithic settlement in Bohemia.

Bylany 1953 – 1967 (01) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (02) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (03) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (04) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (05)

Bylany 1953 – 1967 (06) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (07) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (08) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (09) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (10)

Bylany 1953 – 1967 (11) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (12) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (13) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (14) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (15)

Bylany 1953 – 1967 (16) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (17) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (18) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (19) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (20)

Bylany 1953 – 1967 (21) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (22) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (23) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (24) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (25)

Bylany 1953 – 1967 (26) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (27) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (28) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (29) Bylany 1953 – 1967 (30)

1968 – 1989

In this period, the activities had focused on investigation of the entire microregion formed around local water courses (Bylanka, Vrchlice, and lower Klejnárka). The project included sondages of the Bylany microareals BY1 – BY5 and excavations of microareals Kutná Hora 2, Nové Dvory 1 and 2, and Hlízov. Furthermore, archaeological excavations of the Miskovice 2 site continued where biritual cemetery of the stroked pottery culture (STK – Stichbandkeramik) and LBK settlement have been unearthed.

Bylany 1968 – 1989 (01) Bylany 1968 – 1989 (02) Bylany 1968 – 1989 (03) Bylany 1968 – 1989 (04) Bylany 1968 – 1989 (05)

Bylany 1968 – 1989 (06) Bylany 1968 – 1989 (07) Bylany 1968 – 1989 (08) Bylany 1968 – 1989 (09)

1990 – 1993

In this period, the Bylany project ‘Neolithic Settlement Model’ has been realized. The term ‘site’ (component) has been perceived during the more than 40 years of intensive scientific work as complex of contemporary ranges with distinguishable functions. However, the focus of researchers shifted from an earlier interest in internal chronological structure of the site to recognition of mutual relations of individual settlements within the range of spatio-temporally limited areas or more precisely, to better understanding of complicated structure of not only the settlement but also the Neolithic society culture. Among important components of this project belongs also the archaeological excavation of the roundel of Bylany (BYRO).

Bylany 1990 – 1993 (01) Bylany 1990 – 1993 (02) Bylany 1990 – 1993 (03) Bylany 1990 – 1993 (04) Bylany 1990 – 1993 (05)

2004 -

In this period, a rescue archaeological excavation was conducted in the section sekci B caused by intention of the single family houses construction. It became clear that the LBK settlement known from the previously explored part of the section B became thinner towards the Bylanka water course. No ground plans of the post-hole houses were discovered but this may be caused by possible flushes on the steep land.

Bylany 2004 - (01) Bylany 2004 - (02) Bylany 2004 - (03) Bylany 2004 - (04) Bylany 2004 - (05)

Bylany 2004 - (06) Bylany 2004 - (07) Bylany 2004 - (08) Bylany 2004 - (09) Bylany 2004 - (10)




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